Robin Polt

Professor, Chemistry and Biochemistry

Degrees and Appointments 

  • B.S. 1981, Indiana U.-Purdue U. Indianapolis
  • Ph.D. 1986, Columbia University, NYC
  • Postdoctoral Fellow 1986-1988, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland

Field of Study: BiochemistryOrganic Chemistry

Awards and Honors

  • NSF Rotator, 2002-2003
  • Public Health Service Postdoctoral Fellow, 1986-1988
  • National Science Foundation Predoctoral Fellow, 1981-1984

Research Specialties: Bioorganic, Chemical Biology, Metabolism, Signaling, and Regulation, Protein and Membrane Biochemistry, Synthesis/Synthetic Methods Development


Cell-surface carbohydrates (glycoproteins & glycolipids) have achieved a prominent place during the past two decades, giving rise to the new discipline of "glycobiology." Cell-surface carbohydrates play decisive roles during mammalian fertilization, embryogenesis, normal cellular differentiation and regulation, as well as critical roles in malignancy, tumor growth, and tumor cell metastasis. The vertebrate nervous system seems to be a special beneficiary of the cell-cell communication afforded by glycoconjugates, and one area of interest for us is the study of gangliosides and other glycolipids which may be useful in probing neuronal development, the formation of synapses, cell confluence in lung tissue, and tumor cell metastasis.

The influence of the carbohydrate moiety on glycopeptide structure and function is an area of keen interest to the "Polt Group." Using synthetic methods developed in our lab, the preferred conformations of various glycopeptide model systems have been examined using state-of-the-art 2-D NMR techniques.  We have produced a number of glycopeptide drug candidates based on endogenous neurotransmitters.  The O-linked enkephalin glycosides were the first glycopeptide-based neurotransmitters to function as drugs in vivo, and we have now extended this approach to drug designs based on angiotensin(1-7), endorphins, dynorphins, deltorphins, as well as much larger glycopeptides based on Oxytocin, PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase activating peptide) and VIP (vasoactive intestinal peptide).  All of these classes of glycopeptide have been shown to penetrate the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to produce central effects.  

Current studies focus on the design, synthesis and testing of these and other glycopeptide drugs.

Dr. Polt's Lab Team Members

Dr. Polt's Publications

  1. Szabó LZ, Tanguturi P, Goodman HJ, Sprőber S, Liu C, Al-Obeidi F, Bartlett MJ, Falk T, Kumirov VK, Heien ML, Streicher JM, Polt R. Structure-Based Design of Glycosylated Oxytocin Analogues with Improved Selectivity and Antinociceptive Activity. ACS Med Chem Lett. 2023 Jan 24;14(2):163-170. doi: 10.1021/acsmedchemlett.2c00455. PMID: 36793431; PMCID: PMC9923833.
  2. Encinas-Basurto D, Konhilas JP, Polt R, Hay M, Mansour HM. Glycosylated Ang-(1-7) MasR Agonist Peptide Poly Lactic-co-Glycolic Acid (PLGA) Nanoparticles and Microparticles in Cognitive Impairment: Design, Particle Preparation, Physicochemical Characterization, and In Vitro Release. Pharmaceutics. 2022 Mar 8;14(3):587. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14030587. PMID: 35335963; PMCID: PMC8954495.
  3. Alabsi W, Eedara BB, Encinas-Basurto D, Polt R, Mansour HM. Nose-to-Brain Delivery of Therapeutic Peptides as Nasal Aerosols. Pharmaceutics. 2022 Sep 5;14(9):1870. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14091870. PMID: 36145618; PMCID: PMC9502087.
  4. Apostol CR, Bernard K, Tanguturi P, Molnar G, Bartlett MJ, Szabò L, Liu C, Ortiz JB, Saber M, Giordano KR, Green TRF, Melvin J, Morrison HW, Madhavan L, Rowe RK, Streicher JM, Heien ML, Falk T, Polt R. Design and Synthesis of Brain Penetrant Glycopeptide Analogues of PACAP With Neuroprotective Potential for Traumatic Brain Injury and Parkinsonism. Front Drug Discov (Lausanne). 2022 Jan;1:818003. doi: 10.3389/fddsv.2021.818003. Epub 2022 Jan 14. PMID: 35237767; PMCID: PMC8887546.
  5. Collins KL, Younis US, Tanyaratsrisakul S, Polt R, Hay M, Mansour HM, Ledford JG. Angiotensin-(1-7) Peptide Hormone Reduces Inflammation and Pathogen Burden during Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection in Mice. Pharmaceutics. 2021 Oct 4;13(10):1614. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13101614. PMID: 34683907; PMCID: PMC8539524.
  6. Hoyer-Kimura C, Konhilas JP, Mansour HM, Polt R, Doyle KP, Billheimer D, Hay M. Neurofilament light: a possible prognostic biomarker for treatment of vascular contributions to cognitive impairment and dementia. J Neuroinflammation. 2021 Oct 15;18(1):236. doi: 10.1186/s12974-021-02281-1. PMID: 34654436; PMCID: PMC8520282.
  7. Alabsi W, Acosta MF, Al-Obeidi FA, Hay M, Polt R, Mansour HM. Synthesis, Physicochemical Characterization, In Vitro 2D/3D Human Cell Culture, and In Vitro Aerosol Dispersion Performance of Advanced Spray Dried and Co-Spray Dried Angiotensin (1-7) Peptide and PNA5 with Trehalose as Microparticles/Nanoparticles for Targeted Respiratory Delivery as Dry Powder Inhalers. Pharmaceutics. 2021 Aug 17;13(8):1278. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13081278. PMID: 34452239; PMCID: PMC8398878.
  8. Eedara BB, Alabsi W, Encinas-Basurto D, Polt R, Ledford JG, Mansour HM. Inhalation Delivery for the Treatment and Prevention of COVID-19 Infection. Pharmaceutics. 2021 Jul 14;13(7):1077. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13071077. PMID: 34371768; PMCID: PMC8308954.
  9. Apostol CR, Tanguturi P, Szabò LZ, Varela D, Gilmartin T, Streicher JM, Polt R. Synthesis and In Vitro Characterization of Glycopeptide Drug Candidates Related to PACAP1-23. Molecules. 2021 Aug 14;26(16):4932. doi: 10.3390/molecules26164932. PMID: 34443519; PMCID: PMC8401035.
  10. Eedara BB, Alabsi W, Encinas-Basurto D, Polt R, Mansour HM. Spray-Dried Inhalable Powder Formulations of Therapeutic Proteins and Peptides. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2021 Jun 18;22(5):185. doi: 10.1208/s12249-021-02043-5. PMID: 34143327.
  11. Alabsi W, Al-Obeidi FA, Polt R, Mansour HM. Organic Solution Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Dry Powders of Lactomorphin for Respiratory Delivery: Physicochemical Characterization, In Vitro Aerosol Dispersion, and Cellular Studies. Pharmaceutics. 2020 Dec 25;13(1):26. doi: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13010026. PMID: 33375607; PMCID: PMC7824383.
  12. Bartlett MJ, Mabrouk OS, Szabò L, Flores AJ, Parent KL, Bidlack JM, Heien ML, Kennedy RT, Polt R, Sherman SJ, Falk T. The Delta-Specific Opioid Glycopeptide BBI-11008: CNS Penetration and Behavioral Analysis in a Preclinical Model of Levodopa-Induced Dyskinesia. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Dec 22;22(1):20. doi: 10.3390/ijms22010020. PMID: 33374986; PMCID: PMC7792611.​​​​​​.
  13. Apostol CR, Hay M, Polt R. Glycopeptide drugs: A pharmacological dimension between "Small Molecules" and "Biologics". Peptides. 2020 Sep;131:170369. doi: 10.1016/j.peptides.2020.170369. Epub 2020 Jul 13. PMID: 32673700; PMCID: PMC7448947.
  14. Hogan DE, Tian F, Malm SW, Kegel LL, Szabo LZ, Hunjan AS, Pemberton JE, Klimecki WT, Polt R, Maier RM. Biodegradability and Toxicity of Cellobiosides and Melibiosides. J Surfactants Deterg. 2020 Jul;23(4):715-724​​​ doi: 10.1002/jsde.12421. Epub 2020 May 2. PMID: 34305390; PMCID: PMC8297892.
  15. Stevenson GW, Giuvelis D, Cormier J, Cone K, Atherton P, Krivitsky R, Warner E, St Laurent B, Dutra J, Bidlack JM, Szabò L, Polt R, Bilsky EJ. Behavioral pharmacology of the mixed-action delta-selective opioid receptor agonist BBI-11008: studies on acute, inflammatory and neuropathic pain, respiration, and drug self-administration. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2020 Apr;237(4):1195-1208. doi: 10.1007/s00213-019-05449-z. Epub 2020 Jan 7. PMID: 31912192; PMCID: PMC8106974.
  16. Marciniak A, Camp SM, Garcia JGN, Polt R. In silico Docking Studies of Fingolimod and S1P1 Agonists. Front Pharmacol. 2020 Mar 10;11:247. doi: 10.3389/fphar.2020.00247. PMID: 32210822; PMCID: PMC7076195.
  17. Bartlett MJ, So LY, Szabò L, Skinner DP, Parent KL, Heien ML, Vanderah TW, Polt R, Sherman SJ, Falk T. Highly-selective µ-opioid receptor antagonism does not block L-DOPA-induced dyskinesia in a rodent model. BMC Res Notes. 2020 Mar 12;13(1):149. doi: 10.1186/s13104-020-04994-7. PMID: 32164786; PMCID: PMC7066739.
  18. Camp SM, Marciniak A, Chiang ET, Garcia AN, Bittman R, Polt R, Perez RG, Dudek SM, Garcia JGN. Sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor-independent lung endothelial cell barrier disruption induced by FTY720 regioisomers. Pulm Circ. 2020 Feb 10;10(1):10.1177_2045894020905521. doi: 10.1177/2045894020905521. PMID: 32095229; PMCID: PMC7011338.
  19. Hay M, Polt R, Heien ML, Vanderah TW, Largent-Milnes TM, Rodgers K, Falk T, Bartlett MJ, Doyle KP, Konhilas JP. A Novel Angiotensin-(1-7) Glycosylated Mas Receptor Agonist for Treating Vascular Cognitive Impairment and Inflammation-Related Memory Dysfunction. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2019 Apr;369(1):9-25. doi: 10.1124/jpet.118.254854. Epub 2019 Feb 1. PMID: 30709867; PMCID: PMC6413771.
  20. Hogan DE, Tian F, Malm SW, Olivares C, Palos Pacheco R, Simonich MT, Hunjan AS, Tanguay RL, Klimecki WT, Polt R, Pemberton JE, Curry JE, Maier RM. Biodegradability and toxicity of monorhamnolipid biosurfactant diastereomers. J Hazard Mater. 2019 Feb 15;364:600-607. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2018.10.050. Epub 2018 Nov 1. PMID: 30390580; PMCID: PMC6289288.
  21. Marciniak A, Camp SM, Garcia JGN, Polt R. An update on sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 1 modulators. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2018 Dec 15;28(23-24):3585-3591. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2018.10.042. Epub 2018 Oct 26. PMID: 30409535; PMCID: PMC6430570.
  22. Flores AJ, Bartlett MJ, Root BK, Parent KL, Heien ML, Porreca F, Polt R, Sherman SJ, Falk T. The combination of the opioid glycopeptide MMP-2200 and a NMDA receptor antagonist reduced l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia and MMP-2200 by itself reduced dopamine receptor 2-like agonist-induced dyskinesia. Neuropharmacology. 2018 Oct;141:260-271. doi: 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2018.09.005. Epub 2018 Sep 7. PMID: 30201210; PMCID: PMC6309213.
  23. Palos Pacheco R, Eismin RJ, Coss CS, Wang H, Maier RM, Polt R, Pemberton JE. Synthesis and Characterization of Four Diastereomers of Monorhamnolipids. J Am Chem Soc. 2017 Apr 12;139(14):5125-5132. doi: 10.1021/jacs.7b00427. Epub 2017 Apr 3. PMID: 28301722.
  24. Szabó LZ, Hanrahan DJ, Jones EM, Martin E, Pemberton JE, Polt R. Preparation of S-glycoside surfactants and cysteine thioglycosides using minimally competent Lewis acid catalysis. Carbohydr Res. 2016 Mar 3;422:1-4. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2015.12.008. Epub 2016 Jan 6. PMID: 26795078; PMCID: PMC8876251.
  25. Lefever M, Li Y, Anglin B, Muthu D, Giuvelis D, Lowery JJ, Knapp BI, Bidlack JM, Bilsky EJ, Polt R. Structural Requirements for CNS Active Opioid Glycopeptides. J Med Chem. 2015 Aug 13;58(15):5728-41. doi: 10.1021/acs.jmedchem.5b00014. Epub 2015 Jul 23. PMID: 26125201.
  26. Jones EM, Polt R. CNS active O-linked glycopeptides. Front Chem. 2015 Jun 24;3:40. doi: 10.3389/fchem.2015.00040. PMID: 26157795; PMCID: PMC4478441.
  27. Stevenson GW, Luginbuhl A, Dunbar C, LaVigne J, Dutra J, Atherton P, Bell B, Cone K, Giuvelis D, Polt R, Streicher JM, Bilsky EJ. The mixed-action delta/mu       opioid agonist MMP-2200 does not produce conditioned place preference but does maintain drug self-administration in rats, and induces in vitro markers of tolerance and dependence. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2015 May;132:49-55. doi: 10.1016/j.pbb.2015.02.022. Epub 2015 Feb 28. PMID: 25735493; PMCID: PMC4552603.
  28. Li Y, St Louis L, Knapp BI, Muthu D, Anglin B, Giuvelis D, Bidlack JM, Bilsky EJ, Polt R. Can amphipathic helices influence the CNS antinociceptive activity of glycopeptides related to β-endorphin? J Med Chem. 2014 Mar 27;57(6):2237-46. doi: 10.1021/jm400879w. Epub 2014 Mar 7. PMID: 24576160; PMCID: PMC3983389.
  29. Wang H, Coss CS, Mudalige A, Polt RL, Pemberton JE. A PM-IRRAS investigation of monorhamnolipid orientation at the air-water interface. Langmuir. 2013 Apr 9;29(14):4441-50. doi: 10.1021/la3051725. Epub 2013 Mar 26. PMID: 23406083.
  30. Mabrouk OS, Falk T, Sherman SJ, Kennedy RT, Polt R. CNS penetration of the opioid glycopeptide MMP-2200: a microdialysis study. Neurosci Lett. 2012 Dec 7;531(2):99-103. doi: 10.1016/j.neulet.2012.10.029. Epub 2012 Nov 2. PMID: 23127847; PMCID: PMC3539793.
  31. Lefever MR, Szabò LZ, Anglin B, Ferracane M, Hogan J, Cooney L, Polt R. Glycosylation of α-amino acids by sugar acetate donors with InBr3. Minimally competent Lewis acids. Carbohydr Res. 2012 Apr 1;351:121-5. doi: 10.1016/j.carres.2012.01.008. Epub 2012 Jan 28. PMID: 22342206; PMCID: PMC3296895.
  32. Li Y, Lefever MR, Muthu D, Bidlack JM, Bilsky EJ, Polt R. Opioid glycopeptide analgesics derived from endogenous enkephalins and endorphins. Future Med Chem. 2012 Feb;4(2):205-26. doi: 10.4155/fmc.11.195. PMID: 22300099; PMCID: PMC3306179
  33. Yeomans L, Muthu D, Lowery JJ, Martinez HN, Abrell L, Lin G, Strom K, Knapp BI, Bidlack JM, Bilsky EJ, Polt R. Phosphorylation of enkephalins: NMR and CD studies in aqueous and membrane-mimicking environments. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2011 Nov;78(5):749-56. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2011.01203.x. Epub 2011 Sep 26. PMID: 21801311; PMCID: PMC3193572.
  34. Yue X, Falk T, Zuniga LA, Szabò L, Porreca F, Polt R, Sherman SJ. Effects of the novel glycopeptide opioid agonist MMP-2200 in preclinical models of Parkinson's disease. Brain Res. 2011 Sep 21;1413:72-83. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2011.07.038. Epub 2011 Jul 23. PMID: 21840512; PMCID: PMC3167001
  35. Lowery JJ, Raymond TJ, Giuvelis D, Bidlack JM, Polt R, Bilsky EJ. In vivo characterization of MMP-2200, a mixed δ/μ opioid agonist, in mice. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Mar;336(3):767-78. doi: 10.1124/jpet.110.172866. Epub 2010 Nov 30. PMID: 21118955; PMCID: PMC3061528.
  36. Keyari CM, Polt R, Nichol GS. (S)-Methyl 2-{(S)-2-[bis-(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)methyl-idene-amino]-3-hy-droxy-propanamido}-3-methyl-butano-ate. Acta Crystallogr Sect E Struct Rep Online. 2010 Dec 4;67(Pt 1):o13-4. doi: 10.1107/S1600536810049032. PMID: 21522640; PMCID: PMC3050411.
  37. Keyari CM, Knapp BI, Bidlack JM, Lowey J, Bilsky EJ, Polt R. Glycosyl-enkephalins: synthesis and binding at the mu, delta & kappa opioid receptors. Antinociception in mice. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2009;611:495-6. doi: 10.1007/978-0-387-73657-0_214. PMID: 19400281
  38. Do Carmo GP, Polt R, Bilsky EJ, Rice KC, Negus SS. Behavioral pharmacology of the mu/delta opioid glycopeptide MMP2200 in rhesus monkeys. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2008 Sep;326(3):939-48. doi: 10.1124/jpet.108.138180. Epub 2008 May 29. PMID: 18511649; PMCID: PMC2587285.
  39. Abeytunga DT, Oland L, Somogyi A, Polt R. Structural studies on the neutral glycosphingolipids of Manduca sexta. Bioorg Chem. 2008 Apr;36(2):70-6. doi: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2007.10.002. Epub 2007 Nov 19. PMID: 18023840; PMCID: PMC2983476.
  40. Jalbout AF, Abrell L, Adamowicz L, Polt R, Apponi AJ, Ziurys LM. Sugar synthesis from a gas-phase formose reaction. Astrobiology. 2007 Jun;7(3):433-42. doi: 10.1089/ast.2006.0083. PMID: 17630839.
  41. Lowery JJ, Yeomans L, Keyari CM, Davis P, Porreca F, Knapp BI, Bidlack JM, Bilsky EJ, Polt R. Glycosylation improves the central effects of DAMGO. Chem Biol Drug Des. 2007 Jan;69(1):41-7. doi: 10.1111/j.1747-0285.2007.00462.x. PMID: 17313456.
  42. Polt R, Dhanasekaran M, Keyari CM. Glycosylated neuropeptides: a new vista for neuropsychopharmacology? Med Res Rev. 2005 Sep;25(5):557-85. doi: 10.1002/med.20039. PMID: 16075406.
  43. Dhanasekaran M, Palian MM, Alves I, Yeomans L, Keyari CM, Davis P, Bilsky EJ, Egleton RD, Yamamura HI, Jacobsen NE, Tollin G, Hruby VJ, Porreca F, Polt R. Glycopeptides related to beta-endorphin adopt helical amphipathic conformations in the presence of lipid bilayers. J Am Chem Soc. 2005 Apr 20;127(15):5435-48. doi: 10.1021/ja0432158. PMID: 15826181.
  44. Dhanasekaran M, Polt R. New prospects for glycopeptide based analgesia: glycoside-induced penetration of the blood-brain barrier. Curr Drug Deliv. 2005 Jan;2(1):59-73. doi: 10.2174/1567201052772843. PMID: 16305409.
  45. lmagbari NO, Egleton RD, Palian MM, Lowery JJ, Schmid WR, Davis P, Navratilova E, Dhanasekaran M, Keyari CM, Yamamura HI, Porreca F, Hruby VJ, Polt R, Bilsky EJ. Antinociceptive structure-activity studies with enkephalin-based opioid glycopeptides. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2004 Oct;311(1):290-7. doi: 10.1124/jpet.104.069393. Epub 2004 May 27. PMID: 15166257.
  46. Abeytunga DT, Glick JJ, Gibson NJ, Oland LA, Somogyi A, Wysocki VH, Polt R. Presence of unsaturated sphingomyelins and changes in their composition during the life cycle of the moth Manduca sexta. J Lipid Res. 2004 Jul;45(7):1221-31. doi: 10.1194/jlr.M300392-JLR200. Epub 2004 Apr 21. PMID: 15102888.
  47. Slavish JP, Friel DK, Oland LA, Polt R. New PDMP analogues inhibit process outgrowth in an insect cell line. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2004 Mar 22;14(6):1487-90. doi: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2004.01.013. PMID: 15006387.
  48. Palian MM, Boguslavsky VI, O'Brien DF, Polt R. Glycopeptide-membrane interactions: glycosyl enkephalin analogues adopt turn conformations by NMR and CD in amphipathic media. J Am Chem Soc. 2003 May 14;125(19):5823-31. doi: 10.1021/ja0268635. PMID: 12733923.
  49. Polt R, Kelly BD, Dangel BD, Tadikonda UB, Ross RE, Raitsimring AM, Astashkin AV. Optically active 4- and 5-coordinate transition metal complexes of bifurcated dipeptide Schiff bases. Inorg Chem. 2003 Jan 27;42(2):566-74. doi: 10.1021/ic025996o. PMID: 12693240.

PhD Dissertations

  1. Marciniak, A. (2022). Development of Immune Modulators Targeting Autoimmune Disorders and Pulmonary Injury: Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Sphingolipid-Derived Sphingosine-1 Phosphate Receptor 1 Agonists. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 29161910.
  2. Alabsi, W. (2021). Synthesis, Comprehensive Characterization, and Development of Therapeutic Peptides and Glycopeptides for Targeted Respiratory Drug Delivery as Inhalation Aerosols. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 28771907.
  3. Apostol, C. R. (2021). Design, Synthesis, and Evaluation of Brain-Penetrant PACAP-Derived Glycopeptides for the Treatment of Neurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 28722166.
  4. Palos Pacheco, R. (2018). Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-inspired Glycolipid Surfactants. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 10807806.
  5. Jones, E. M. (2015). Design and synthesis of neurologically active glycopeptides for neuroprotection and antinociception. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3734399.
  6. Anglin, B. L. (2014). Design and synthesis of PACAP based glycopeptide analogs; effects of glycosylation on activity and blood-brain barrier penetration. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3621426.
  7. Coss, C. S. (2012). Minimally competent Lewis acid catalysts. General methods for the synthesis and separation of diastereomeric mixtures of monorhamnolipids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa with peracetate glycoside donors. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3523278.
  8. Li, Y. (2011). Design, synthesis, and characterization of helical opioid glycopeptide agonists: The study of the structure-activity relationship and transport of glycopeptides related to beta-endorphin and dynorphin. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3487217.
  9. Lefever, M. (2010). Design, synthesis and characterization of helical opioid glycopeptides and fluorescent derivatives including optimization of serine glycosylation utilizing sugar acetates. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3404708.
  10. Kelly, B. D. (2009). Amino acid derived transition metal complexes: Structural and catalytic studies. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3354601.
  11. Kim, S. U. (2009). Synthetic efforts toward fumonisin via amino acid Schiff base methodology. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3352589.
  12. Yeomans-Maldonado, L. (2009). Glycopeptide and phosphopeptide analogs of DAMGO: A study on the role of amphipathicity to promote blood brain barrier penetration. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3396739.
  13. Keyari, C. M. (2007). Glycosylating enkephalins: Design, glycosylation using sugar acetates in the preparation of glycosyl amino acids for glycope
  14. Tadikonda, U. B. (2005). Design, synthesis and applications of tetradentate transition metal complexes towards asymmetric alkylations. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3164577.
  15. Slavish, J. (2004). Synthesis and biological evaluation of analogues of a glycosyltransferase inhibitor. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3158157.
  16. Palian, M. M. (2002). Glycopeptide enkephalin analogs: Design, synthesis, biophysical and pharmacological evaluation of potent analgesics with reduced side-effects. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 3060969.
  17. Dangel, B. D. (2000). Efforts towards the development of a universal catalyst system: Transition metal complexes derived from O'Donnell Schiff bases of amino acids. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 9992088.
  18. Mitchell, S. A. (1999). O-glycopeptide analogues of enkephalin: FMOC-amino acid glycoside synthesis, solid-phase glycopeptide synthesis and optimizations, and pharmacology. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 9927459.
  19. 17. Razavi, H. (1999). Amino acid Schiff base methodology for the synthesis of glycosidase inhibitors: Polyhydroxylated pyrrolidines and indolizidines. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 9927477.
  20. Kriss, C. T. (1999). Conformational analysis of O-linked glycopeptides related to enkephalin and nuclear pore proteins. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 9927488.
  21. Sames, D. (1996). Stereoselective oxygenation of a double bond: Design and synthesis of azasugar inhibitors of glucoconjugate processing enzymes. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 9620392.
  22. Wijayaratne, T. U. (1993). Part 1. 2-Deoxy-C-glycofuranosides from D-glucose. Part 2. An approach to N-acetylneuraminic acid from carbohydrate precursors. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 9333333.
  23. Peterson, M. A. (1992). Stereoselective synthesis of beta-amino alcohols and glycosphingolipids: N-diphenylmethylene protection for tandem C-C/C-O bond formation. The University of Arizona, ProQuest Dissertations Publishing, 9309015.