## Chemical Thermodynamics

Introduction to Chemistry 480A

States of Matter, Variables, and Units

Ideal gas and van der Waals equations of state

The virial equations of state

Critical Points

Critical Constants for van der Walls Gas

Solids, Liquids, Thermometers, Ideal Gas Temperature Scale

Work, Energy, the First Law

pV Work, Reversible and Irreversible Processes

Heat and Heat Capacity

Energy, the First Law, and Enthalpy

Joule Expansion, Adiabatic Expansion, Adiabatic Work, Joule-Thompson Expansion

Thermodynamic Equation of State, Relationship between *C*_{p} and *C*_{V}

Thermochemistry, Making and Breaking Bonds, Ions In Water Solution

Exact and Inexact Differentials, in Thermodynamics

Introduction to the
Second Law of Thermodynamics

The Carnot Cycle

Consequences of the word statements of the
Second law as derived from cycles

Second law - the equation

Second law - Applications: Definition of Equilibrium, Entropy Change Calculations

Entropy of Mixing - Ideal Gases;What Does Entropy Measure?

Helmholtz and Gibbs Free Energies; More Criteria for Equilibrium, Maxwell's Equations

Adiabatic Compressibility, Adiabatic Expansion Revisited

Gibbs Free Energy and Chemical Reactions The "Driving Force" for Chemical Reactions

The Third Law of Thermodynamics; Entropy Changes in Chemical Reactions

Gibbs Free Energy and Temperature - The Gibbs-Helmholtz Equation

Gibbs Free Energy and Pressure, Chemical Potential, Fugacity

Open Systems, Integration of *dU*, Gibbs-Duhem Equation

Phase Equilibrium

One-Component Phase Diagrams

Clapeyron and Clausius-Clapeyron Equations

The Melting Curve for Water; Vapor Pressure; Vapor Pressure Under External Pressure

Mixtures; Partial Molar Quantities: Ideal Solutions

Activity and Activity Coefficients

Vapor Pressure Diagrams; Henry's Law, Boiling Diagrams

Colligative Properties (Including Osmotic Pressure)

Gibbs Phase Rule

Two-Component Phase Diagrams and Cooling Curves

Chemical Equilibrium, *K* and *K*(*T*)

Ions in Solution, Ionic Strength, and DHLL

Electrochemistry I, Electrical work and Electrochemical Cells

Electrochemistry I, Continued, Half-Cells and Reduction Potentials

Electrochemistry II, Cells with no salt bridge, cell from reaction, and measuring *E*^{o} and the "average" activity coefficient

## Useful Mathematical Relations

The cyclic rule, sometimes referred to as Euler's chain relation.

Copyright 2001, W. R. Salzman

Permission is granted for individual, noncommercial use of this file.

salzman@arizona.edu

Last updated 27 Aug 01